Neurofeedback (Brain Training)

I offer NeurOptimal® Neurofeedback and am a Certified Advanced Trainer. Neurofeedback is a non-invasive brain training treatment that helps your brain to self-regulate and develop healthier patterns using audio feedback. By giving your brain the information it collects, it is able to harmonize your brain waves, naturally (without medication). During  the neurofeedback sessions, your brain "learns" how to bring abnormally fast or slow waves into the normal range. There is no electrical current going into your brain, the EEG sensors are only reading your brain waves and then, like a mirror, it gives real-time feedback to allow your brain to adapt and change where needed. 

Neurofeedback is quickly becoming widely-used by people of all ages for a variety of reasons such as enhanced sports performance, regulated mood, increased focus, improved sleeping patterns, overall wellness and functioning and so much more ... just check out all the linked and listed research below!

Neurofeedback is completely safe and NeurOptimal® is FDA approved.  No specific diagnosis is needed to achieve results with NeurOptimal® as it works to scan and regulate the whole brain to improve negative patterns. When our brains are given the right information, it naturally knows how to change. NeurOptimal® is based on over 40 years of neuroscience and related disciplines, and is considered by many to be the most highly evolved form of Neurofeedback available today.

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Neurofeedback Research

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Click here to find research specific to NeurOptimal® brain training for conditions such as addiction, ADHD-ADD, Alzheimer's, Anxiety-Depression, Autism, Chemo Brain, Family, General, Peak Performance, PTSD, Sleep Disorders, Stress, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Tinnitus.

Click here for an article which found Neurofeedback training to improve anxiety and depression symptoms for people diagnosed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Click here for a research article which shows positive effects of Neurofeedback on post-COVID-19 complications.

Click here for an article which found increased performance by athletes in both reaction time and cognitive performance after using Neurofeedback.

Click here for an article published by The Journal of the American Board of Sport Psychology showing that Neurofeedback enhances optimal performance in athletes in various sports by improving concentration and focus, improving cognitive function and emotional control following concussions and mild head injuries, and increases physical balance and other areas of sports performance.

Click here for an article abstract discussing the positive results of using Neurofeedback in schools for children with ADHD.

Click here for an article published by ADDitude finding that Neurofeedback is effective for treating ADHD.
 

Here is an additional list of clinical studies listed by topic proving the efficacy of neurofeedback. These published studies, which have been conducted worldwide, prove that neurofeedback works and is helpful in all aspects of life.

Improved brain function

 

Megumi et al., 2015, F. Megumi, A. Yamashita, M. Kawato, H. Imamizu, Functional MRI neurofeedback training on connectivity between two regions induces long-lasting changes in intrinsic functional network, Front. Hum. Neurosci., Vol. 9, 2015, 160

 

Gruzelier, J. H. (2014). EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: A review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 44, 124-141. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.09.015

 

Mathiak et al., 2015, K.A. Mathiak, Social reward improves the voluntary control over localized brain activity in fMRI-based neurofeedback training, Front. Behav. Neurosci., Vol. 9, 2015, 136

 

Anxiety

 

Dreis, S. M., Gouger, A. M., Perez, E. G., Russo, G. M., Fitzsimmons, M. A., & Jones, M. S. (2015). Using neurofeedback to lower anxiety symptoms using individualized qEEG protocols: A pilot study. NeuroRegulation, 2, 137-148. doi:10.15540/nr.2.3.137

 

Dreis, S. M., Gouger, A. M., Perez, E. G., Russo, G. M., Fitzsimmons, M. A., & Jones, M. S. (2015). Using neurofeedback to lower anxiety symptoms using individualized qEEG protocols: A pilot study. NeuroRegulation, 2, 137-148. doi:10.15540/nr.2.3.137

 

Moss, D. (2016). Anxiety and anxiety disorders. In G. Tan, F. Shaffer, R. Lyle, & I. Teo (Eds.), Evidence-based treatment in biofeedback and neurofeedback. Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (pp. 27-31). Wheat Ridge, CO.

 

New Behaviour Research and Therapy Study Findings Recently Were Reported by Researchers at University of Padua (Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety) Psychology & Psychiatry Journal; Atlanta 27 May 2017: 235.

Addiction

 

Kim et al., 2015, D.Y. Kim, S.S. Yoo, M. Tegethoff, G. Meinlschmidt, J.H. Lee, The inclusion of functional connectivity information into fMRI-based neurofeedback improves its efficacy in the reduction of cigarette cravings, J. Cogn. Neurosci., Vol. 27, Iss. 8, 2015, 1552-1572

 

Kirsch M, Gruber I, Ruf M, Kiefer F, Kirsch P. Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback can reduce striatal cue-reactivity to alcohol stimuli. Addict Biol. 2015.

 

Rostami, R; Dehghani-arani, F. Neurofeedback Training as a New Method in Treatment of Crystal Methamphetamine Dependent Patients: A Preliminary Study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback; New York40.3 (Sep 2015): 151-161.

 

Athletic and Cognitive Performance

 

Sherlin, L. H., & Larson Ford, N. (2016). Biofeedback and neurofeedback in enhancing performance. In G. Tan, F. Shaffer, R. Lyle, & I. Teo (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in biofeedback and neurofeedback (3rd ed., pp. XX-XX). Wheat Ridge, CO: Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.

 

Gruzelier JH. EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: a review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014 ; 44 : 124 – 141. 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.09.015

 

Pacheco, N. C. (2016). Neurofeedback for peak performance training. journal of Mental Health Counseling, 38, 116-123. doi:10.17744/mehc.38.2.03.

 

Gruzelier, J., Egner, T., & Vernon, D. (2006). Validating the efficacy of neurofeedback for optimising performance. Progress in Brain Research, 159, 421–431. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(06)59027-2.

 

Hammond, D. C. (2007). Neurofeedback for the enhancement of athletic performance and physical balance. The Journal of the American Board of Sport Psychology, 1, 1–9.

 

Hanslmayr, S., Sauseng, P., Doppelmayr, M., Schabus, M., & Klimesch, W. (2005). Increasing individual upper alpha power by neurofeedback improves cognitive performance in Human subjects. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 30(1), 1–10. doi:10.1007/s10484-005-2169-8.

 

Ros, T., Moseley, M. J., Bloom, P. A., Benjamin, L., Parkinson, L. A., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2009). Optimizing microsurgical skills with EEG neurofeedback. BMC Neuroscience, 10, 87. doi:10.1186/ 1471-2202-10-87.

 

Vernon, D., Dempster, T., Bazanova, O., Rutterford, N., Pasqualini, M., & Andersen, S. (2009). Alpha neurofeedback training for performance enhancement: Reviewing the methodology. Journal of Neurotherapy, 13(4), 214–227. doi:10.1080/10874200903334397.

 

Vernon, D., Egner, T., Cooper, N., Compton, T., Neilands, C., Sheri, A., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2003). The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 47, 75–85. doi:10. 1016/S0167-8760(02)00091-0.

 

Zoefel, B., Huster, R. J., & Herrmann, C. S. (2011). Neurofeedback training of the upper alpha frequency band in EEG improves cognitive performance. Neuroimage, 54, 1427–1431. doi:10. 1016/j.neuroimage.2010.08.078.

 

Depression

 

Young KD et al. Randomized clinical trial of real-time fMRI amygdala neurofeedback for major depressive disorder: Effects on symptoms and autobiographical memory recall. Am J Psychiatry 2017 Apr 14; [e-pub].

 

Choi SW Chi SE Chung SY Kim JW Ahn CY Kim HT. Is alpha wave neurofeedback effective with randomized clinical trials in depression? A pilot study. Neuropsychobiology. 2011 ; 63 (1): 43 – 51. 10.1159/000322290

 

Cheon, E., Koo, B., & Choi, J. The Efficacy of Neurofeedback in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Labeled Prospective Study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback; New York41.1 (Mar 2016): 103-110.

 

Epilepsy

 

Mayer, Kerstin; Arns, Martijn. Electroencephalogram Neurofeedback: Application in ADHD and Epilepsy. Psychiatric Annals; Thorofare46.10 (Oct 2016): 594-600.

 

Mayer, K., Arns, M. Psychiatric Annals; Electroencephalogram Neurofeedback: Application in ADHD and Epilepsy. Thorofare 46.10 (Oct 2016): 594-600.

 

Sterman, M. B., & Egner, T. (2006). Foundation and practice of neurofeedback for treatment of epilepsy. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 31(1), 21–35. doi:10.1007/s10484-006-9002-x.

 

Tan, G., Thornby, J., Hammond, D. C., Strehl, U., Canady, B., Arnemann, K., & Kaiser, D. A. (2009). Meta-analysis of EEG biofeedback in treating epilepsy. Clinical EEG and Neuro- science, 40(3), 173–179. doi:10.1177/155005940904000310.

 

Thapar, A. Cooper, M. (2016). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Lancet; London387.10024 (Mar 19, 2016): 1240-1250.

 

ADD/ADHD

 

Russell-Chapin, L. A., Kemmerly, T., Liu, W. C., Zagardo, M., Chapin, T., Dailey, D., & Dihn, D. (2013). The effects of neurofeedback in the default mode network: Pilot study results of medicated children with ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 17, 35-42. doi: 10.1080/10874208.2 013.759017

 

Zuberer A Brandeis D Drechsler R. Are treatment effects of neurofeedback training in children with ADHD related to the successful regulation of brain activity? A review on the learning of regulation of brain activity and a contribution to the discussion on specificity. Front Hum Neurosci. 2015 ; 9 : 135. 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00135

 

Arnold LE Lofthouse N Hersch S EEG neurofeedback for ADHD: double-blind sham-controlled randomized pilot feasibility trial. J Atten Disord. 2013 ; 17 (5): 410 – 419. 10.1177/1087054712446173

 

Arns, M., de Ridder, S., Strehl, U., Breteler, M., & Coenen, A. (2009). Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: The effects on inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40, 180-189. doi:10.1177/155005940904000311

 

Beauregard, M., & Levesque, J. (2006). Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. I, 31(1), 3–20. doi:10.1007/s10484-006-9001-y.

 

Bink, M., van Nieuwenhuizen, C., Popma, A., Bongers, I. L; van Boxtel, Geert J. Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry; New York24.9 (Sep 2015): 1035-1048.

 

Faraone SV Buitelaar J. Comparing the efficacy of stimulants for ADHD in children and adolescents using meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 ; 19 (4): 353 – 364. 10.1007/s00787-009-0054-3

 

Gevensleben, H., Holl. B., Albrecht, B. Neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: 6-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 ; 19 (9): 715 – 724. 10.1007/s00787-010-0109-5

 

Fuchs, T., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Gruzelier, J., & Kaiser, J., (2003). Neurofeedback treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: A comparison with methylphenidate. Journal of Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 28, 1-12

 

Hasslinger, J., Sirviö, S., Berggren, S., Myers, L., Flygare, O., et al. A comparative randomized controlled pragmatic trial of neurofeedback and working memory training for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: protocol. Translational Developmental Psychiatry; Stockholm4 (2016).

 

Lansbergen, M. M., van Dongen-Boomsma, M., Buite-laar, J. K., & Slaats-Willemse, D. (2011). ADHD and EEG-neurofeedback: A double-blind rando- mized placebo-controlled feasibility study. Journal of Neural Transmission, 118, 275–284. doi:10.1007/ s00702-010-0524-2.

 

Lubar, J. F. (2003). Neurofeedback for the management of attention- deficit disorders. In M. Schwartz & F. Andrasik (Eds.), Biofeedback: A practitioner’s guide (pp. 409–437). New York: The Guilford Press.

 

Mayer, K., Arns, M. Psychiatric Annals; Electroencephalogram Neurofeedback: Application in ADHD and Epilepsy. Thorofare 46.10 (Oct 2016): 594-600.

 

Mayer, K., Blume, F., Wyckoff, S. N., Brokmeier, L. L., & Strehl, U. (2016). Neurofeedback of slow cortical potentials as a treatment for adults with attention deficit-/hyperactivity disorder. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016 ; 127 (2): 1374 – 1386. 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.11.013

 

Meisel V., Servera M., Garcia-Banda G., Cardo E., & Moreno I. (2013). Neurofeedback and standard pharmacological intervention in ADHD: a randomized controlled trial with six-month follow-up . Biological Psychology 94 , 12 -21 .10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.04.015 23665196

 

Molina, B. S., Hinshaw, S. P., & Swanson, J. M. (2009). The MTA at 8 years: prospective follow-up of children treated for combined-type ADHD in a multisite study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009 ; 48 (5): 484 – 500. 10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819c23d0

 

Riddle, M. A., Yershova, K., Lazzaretto, D. (2013).  The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-year follow-up. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 ; 52 (3): 264 – 278.e2. 10.1016/j.jaac.2012.12.007

 

Steiner, N. J., Frenette, E. C., Rene, K. M., Brennan, R. T., & Perrin, E. C. (2014). In-school neurofeedback training for adhd: sustained improvements from a randomized control trial. Pediatrics. 2014 ; 133 (3): 483 – 492. 10.1542/peds.2013-2059

 

Strehl, U., Leins, U., Goth, G., Klinger, C., Hinterberger, T., & Birbaumer, N. (2006). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials: a new treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2006 ; 118 (5): e1530 – 1540. 10.1542/peds.2005-2478

 

van Dongen-Boomsma, M. (2014). Need, quest and evidence resting-state oscillations, neurofeedback, and working memory training in ADHD. Nijmegen: Radboud University.

 

van Dongen-Boomsma M Vollebregt MA Slaats-Willemse D Buitelaar JK. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013; 74 (8): 821 – 827. 10.4088/JCP.12m08321

 

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

 

Koprivova J Congedo M Raszka M Prasko J Brunovsky M Horacek J. Prediction of treatment response and the effect of independent component neurofeedback in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind study. Neuropsychobiology. 2013; 67 (4): 210 – 223. 10.1159/000347087

 

Psychosomatic Symptoms

 

Windthorst P Veit R Enck P Smolka R Zipfel S Teufel M. Biofeedback and neurofeedback: applications in psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 2015 ; 65 (3-4): 146 – 158. 10.1055/s-0034-1387320

 

Food Cravings

 

Fattahi, Samineh; Naderi, Farah; Asgari, Parviz; Ahadi, Hassan. Neuro-Feedback Training For Overweight Women: Improvement of Food Craving And Mental Health. NeuroQuantology; Bornova Izmir15.2 (2017).

 

Schmidt, J. & Martin, A. (2015). Neurofeedback Reduces Overeating Episodes in Female Restrained Eaters: A Randomized Controlled Pilot-Study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback; New York40.4 (Dec 2015): 283-295.

 

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

 

LB Andersen, LB Melvaer, P Videbech, RF Lamont, JS Joergensen, Risk factors for developing post-traumatic stress disorder following childbirth: a systematic review, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, Vol. 91, 2012, 1261-1272

 

Ayers, Susan; McKenzie-McHarg, Kirstie; Eagle, Andrew. Cognitive behaviour therapy for postnatal post-traumatic stress disorder: case studies. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology; Utrecht 28.3 (Sep 2007): 177-84.

 

Behavioral Issues

 

Chapin, T., & Russell-Chapin, L.A. (2014). Introduction to neurotherapy and neurofeedback: Brainbased interventions for psychological and behavioral problems. New York, NY: Routledge

 

Stoeckel, L. E., Garrison, K.A., Ghosh, S., Wighton, P., Hanlon, C. A., Gilman, J. M., Greer S., et al. (2014 ) Optimizing real time fMRI neurofeedback for therapeutic discovery and development . Neuroimage Clinics 10 (5 ):245 -55.

 

Psychiatric Disorders

 

Cheon, E., Koo, B. Seo, W., Lee, J., Choi, J., et al. Effects of Neurofeedback on Adult Patients with Psychiatric Disorders in a Naturalistic Setting. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback; New York40.1 (Mar 2015): 17-24.

 

Diaz Hernandez, L., Rieger, K., Baenninger, A., Brandeis, D., & Koenig, T. Towards Using Microstate-Neurofeedback for the Treatment of Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia. A Feasibility Study in Healthy Participants. Brain Topography; New York29.2 (Mar 2016): 308-321.

 

Memory

 

Escolano, C., Aguilar, M., & Minguez, J. (2011). EEG-based upper alpha neurofeedback training improves working memory per-formance. In Annual International Conference of the IEEE (pp. 2327–2330). Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. doi:10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6090651.

 

Guez, J., Rogel, A., Getter, N., Keha, E., Cohen, T., Amor, T., et al. (2014). Influence of EEG neurofeedback training on episodic memory: A randomized, sham-controlled, double blind study. Memory. doi:10.1080/09658211.2014.921713

 

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

 

Munivenkatappa A., Rajeswaran J., Indira D. B., Bennet N., & Upadhyay N. (2014). EEG Neurofeedback therapy: Can it attenuate brain changes in TBI? NeuroRehabilitation 2014;35:481-4.

 

Nelson, D. V., & Esty, M. L. (2013). Neurotherapy of Traumatic Brain Injury/Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Vietnam Veterans. Military Medicine; Bethesda180.10 (Oct 2015): E1111-E1114.

 

Thomas, J L., & Smith, M. L. (2015). Neurofeedback for Traumatic Brain Injury: Current Trends. Biofeedback (Online); Lawrence43.1 (Spring 2015): 31-37.